The following selection of references and research is for informational use only. The information presented here is not intended to recommend or endorse any specific products or treatments. Always work with your health care provider to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease


1.Britannica, T. E. of E. (n.d.). Vitamin B complex.
2.Dyer, S. (2019, February 1). Who Needs A B-Complex Vitamin and How to Choose a Good One ~ Dr. Sheila Dyer, ND. (2019). Vitamin B Complex.
4.Harvard School of Public Health. (2019, July 24). B Vitamins.
5.Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998. 2, The B Vitamins and Choline: Overview and Methods.
6.Kennedy, D. O., Veasey, R., Watson, A., Dodd, F., Jones, E., Maggini, S., & Haskell, C. F. (2010). Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology, 211(1), 55–68. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3
7.Miller, A. (n.d.). What is Methylation and Why You Should Care About it.
8.Thomson, A. D. (2000). Mechanisms of Vitamin Deficiency in Chronic Alcohol Misusers and the Development of the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 35(Supplement_1), 2–1. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/35.supplement_1.2
9.Wilcken, B. (2003). Geographical and ethnic variation of the 677C>T allele of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR): findings from over 7000 newborns from 16 areas world wide. Journal of Medical Genetics, 40(8), 619–625. doi: 10.1136/jmg.40.8.619
1.Laucius, J., & Ottawa Citizen. (2017, June 19). Oops! 61 per cent of Canadian women have an 'unintended' pregnancy, says survey.
2.Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine(3rd ed.). Optima. 77-78.
3.National Institute of Health. (2019). Office of Dietary Supplements - Choline.
VITAMIN B12 1000 mcg
1.Okuda K, Yashima K, Kitazaki T, Takara I. Intestinal absorption and concurrent chemical changes of methylcobalamin. J Lab Clin Med. 1973 Apr;81(4):557-67. PubMed PMID: 4696188.
2.National Institute of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin B12.
VITAMIN B2 100 mg
1.Examine. (2019, March 6). Vitamin B2 Supplement - Science-based Review on Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects.
2.Hyman, M. (2015, January 8). 5 Steps To Solve Your Migraines.
3.Romm, A. (2018, May 15). 6 Steps to Prevent Migraines, Naturally.
VITAMIN B6 50 mg
1.Briden, L. (2019, April 20). The End of PMS with Vitamin B6 and Other Serious Cures.
2.Whelan, A. M., Jurgens, T. M., and Naylor, H. Herbs, vitamins and minerals in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Can.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;16(3):e407-e429
3.Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O'Brien PM. Efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. BMJ 1999;318:1375-81
VITAMIN C 600 mg
1.Examine. (2019, August 14). Vitamin C Supplement - Science-based Review on Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects.
2.Carr, A. C., & Frei, B. (1999). Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(6), 1086–1107. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/69.6.1086
3.George Lewith, Julian Kenyon and Peter Lewis, Complementary Medicine: An Integrated Approach (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 108-9.
4.Mangels, A.R. et al. The bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid from oranges, orange juice, and cooked broccoli is similar to that of synthetic ascorbic acid. Journal of Nutrition. 1993; volume 123: pages 1054-1061
5.Murray, M. T. (2002). The encyclopedia of nutritional supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima.
6.TRC Natural Medicines. (2019, August 9). Vitamin C Professional Product Monograph.
7.Vitamin C: Natural Vs Synthetic.
8.Werbach, M. R. (1993). Healing through nutrition: a natural approach to treating 50 common illnesses with diet and nutrients. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
1.Alive Academy. (2015). Natural Product Advisor. Richmond, BC: Alive Academy.
2.Feldman, D., Pike, J. W., & Bouillon, R. (2011). Vitamin D. Elsevier Academic Press.
3.Health Canada. (2009, March 12). Government of Canada.
4.Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.
5.Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine(3rd ed.). Optima. 77-78.
6.Schwalfenberg, G., Genuis, S., & Hiltz, M. (2010). Addressing vitamin D deficiency in Canada: A public health innovation whose time has come. Public Health, 124(6), 350–359. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2010.03.003
8.Statistics Canada. (2015, November 27). Health at a Glance.
9.Tripkovic, L., Lambert, H., Hart, K., Smith, C., Bucca, G., Penson, S., … Lanham-New, S. (2012). Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 6(95). doi: 10.4016/48110.01
10.Vitamin D Serum Level by Amount of Sun Exposure.


IRON 30 mg
1.Health Canada. (2019, January 22). Iron.
2.Vegan Health. Daily Needs 25.
1.Examine. (2018, September 27). Magnesium Supplement information - covers deficiency, benefits, dosage & more.
2.Bagis, S., Karabiber, M., As, I., Tamer, L., Erdogan, C., & Atalay, A. (2012). Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia? Rheumatology International, 33(1), 167–172. doi: 10.1007/s00296-011-2334-8
3.Health Canada. (2012, March 15). Do Canadian Adults Meet Their Nutrient Requirements Through Food Intake Alone?
4.Köseoglu E, et al. The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura.(2008) Magnes Res.
5.Lamontagne C, Sewell JA, Vaillancourt R, Kuhzarani C, (2012) Rapid Resolution of Chronic Back Pain with Magnesium Glycinate in a Pediatric Patient. J Pain Relief 1:101
6.Murray, M. T. (2002). The encyclopedia of nutritional supplements. Rocklin, CA: Prima.
7.Romm, A. (2017, December 30). Magnesium for Women: The Relaxation Mineral.
8.Romm, A. (2017, December 30). Natural MD Radio: Magnesium for Women.
ZINC 25 mg
1.Baum, M. K., Shor-Posner, G., & Campa, A. (2000). Zinc Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. The Journal of Nutrition, 130(5). doi: 10.1093/jn/130.5.1421s
2.Dieticians of Canada. (2017). Food Sources of Zinc.
3.Dreno B, Trossaert M, Boiteau HL, Litoux P. Zinc salts effects on granulocyte zinc concentration and chemotaxis in acne patients. Acta Derm Venereol 1992;72:250-2
4.Examine. (2019, June 3). Zinc Supplement - Science-based Review on Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects.
5.Examine. (2019, June 3). Zinc Supplement - Science-based Review on Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects.
6.Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. (2001). Zinc. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, 442–501.
7.Murray, M., & Pizzorno, J. (1998). The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine(3rd ed.). Optima. 249.
8.Mogaddam, M. R., Ardabili, N. S., Maleki, N., & Soflaee, M. (2014). Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris. BioMed Research International, 2014, 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2014/474108
9.Ozuguz, P., Kacar, S. D., Ekiz, O., Takci, Z., Balta, I., & Kalkan, G. (2013). Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, 33(2), 99–102. doi: 10.3109/15569527.2013.808656
10.Trott, J. (n.d.). Zinc SAP: NFH: Nutritional Fundamentals for Health.

Nutritional Oils

OMEGA 3 1414 mg
1.Higdon, J., Drake, V. J., Angelo, G., Delage, B., & Jump, D. (2019, August 5). Essential Fatty Acids.
2.Larqué, E., Gil-Sánchez, A., Prieto-Sánchez, M. T., & Koletzko, B. (2012). Omega 3 fatty acids, gestation and pregnancy outcomes. British Journal of Nutrition, 107(S2). doi: 10.1017/s0007114512001481
1.American Pregnancy Association. (2019, July 16). Omega 3 Fatty Acids: FAQs.
2.European Food Safety Authority. (2010). Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA Journal, 8(3). doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1507
3.Health Canada. (2009, April 16). Prenatal Nutrition Guidelines for Health Professionals - Frequently Asked Questions.
4.Public Health Agency of Canada. (2014, January 15). Omega-3 fatty acids and fish during pregnancy.
1.Davis, B. C., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2003). Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(3). doi: 10.1093/ajcn/78.3.640s


1.Examine. (2019, August 20). Ashwagandha Supplement - Science-based Review on Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects.
2.Ambiye, V. R., Langade, D., Dongre, S., Aptikar, P., Kulkarni, M., & Dongre, A. (2013). Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013, 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2013/571420
3.Health Canada, & Natural Health Products Directorate. (2007, May 8). Monograph: Ashwagandha.
4.Romm, A. (2018, June 21). Adaptogens: Ancient Medicines for 21st Century Stress (Replay).
5.Romm, A. (2017, December 30). Adaptogens for Healing Burnout: Which Work Best?
6.St. Francis Herb Farm. Ashwagandha Caps.
1.St. Francis Herb Farm. (n.d.). Deep Immune.
MACA 750 mg
1.Claps, M.(2016, June 30). Why Choosing the Right Type of Maca is Important.
2.(2019, May 14). Maca Supplement - Science-based Review on Benefits, Dosage, Side Effects.
3.Rodriguez, H. (2018, December 6). Maca, Wonder Herb For Fertility...
4.Maca: AOR.
5.Organika: Products: Maca Capsules.
6.Romm, A. (2018, June 21). Adaptogens: Ancient Medicines for 21st Century Stress (Replay).
7.Storkey, C. (2019, March 29). 5 - The different colours of Maca explained.
1.Abenavoli, L., Capasso, R., Milic, N., & Capasso, F. (2010). Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytotherapy Research, 24(10), 1423–1432. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3207
2.Bradley PR, editor. 2006. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association.
3.Flora, K., Hahn, M., Rosen, H., & Benner, K. (1998). Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) for the Therapy of Liver Disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 93(2), 139–143. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.00139.x
4.National Centre for Complementary and Integrative Health. (2016, December 1). Milk Thistle.
5.Siegel, A. B., & Stebbing, J. (2013). Milk thistle: early seeds of potential. The Lancet Oncology, 14(10), 929–930. doi: 10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70414-5
REISHI 250 mg
1.CanPrev. (2019, August 21). Medicinal Mushrooms.
2.Romm, A. (2017, December 30). Adaptogens for Healing Burnout: Which Work Best?
1.Examine. (2019, July 31). Rhodiola Rosea: Summary of Scientific Research.
2.Thorne. Rhodiola: An important stress-relieving botanical.
3.Darbinyan, V., Kteyan, A., Panossian, A., Gabrielian, E., Wikman, G., & Wagner, H. (2000). Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue — A double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine, 7(5), 365–371. doi: 10.1016/s0944-7113(00)80055-0
4.Kasper, S., & Dienel, A. (2017). Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola roseaextract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, Volume 13, 889–898. doi: 10.2147/ndt.s120113
5.Peschel, W., Kump, A., Horváth, A., & Csupor, D. (2016). Age and harvest season affect the phenylpropenoid content in cultivated European Rhodiola rosea L. Industrial Crops and Products, 83, 787–802. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.10.037
6.Romm, A. (2017, December 30). Adaptogens for Healing Burnout: Which Work Best?
1.Cingi, C., Conk-Dalay, M., Cakli, H., & Bal, C. (2008). The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 265(10), 1219–1223. doi: 10.1007/s00405-008-0642-8
2.Prairie Naturals. Organic Spirulina.
1.Agarwal, K. A., Tripathi, C. D., Agarwal, B. B., & Saluja, S. (2011). Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Surgical Endoscopy, 25(12), 3805–3810. doi: 10.1007/s00464-011-1793-z
2.Anand, P., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Newman, R. A., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2007). Bioavailability of Curcumin: Problems and Promises. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4(6), 807–818. doi: 10.1021/mp700113r
3.Cao, H., Zheng, J.-W., Li, J.-J., Meng, B., Li, J., & Ge, R.-S. (2014). Effects of curcumin on pain threshold and on the expression of nuclear factor κ B and CX3C receptor 1 after sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury in rats. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, 20(11), 850–856. doi: 10.1007/s11655-013-1549-9
4.Chen, J.-J., Dai, L., Zhao, L.-X., Zhu, X., Cao, S., & Gao, Y.-J. (2015). Intrathecal curcumin attenuates pain hypersensitivity and decreases spinal neuroinflammation in rat model of monoarthritis. Scientific Reports, 5(1). doi: 10.1038/srep10278
5.Cheppudira, B., Fowler, M., Mcghee, L., Greer, A., Mares, A., Petz, L., … Clifford, J. L. (2013). Curcumin: a novel therapeutic for burn pain and wound healing. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 22(10), 1295–1303. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2013.825249
6.Kuptniratsaikul, V., Thanakhumtorn, S., Chinswangwatanakul, P., Wattanamongkonsil, L., & Thamlikitkul, V. (2009). Efficacy and Safety of Curcuma domestica Extracts in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(8), 891–897. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0186
7.Mittal, N., Joshi, R., Hota, D., & Chakrabarti, A. (2009). Evaluation of antihyperalgesic effect of curcumin on formalin-induced orofacial pain in rat. Phytotherapy Research, 23(4), 507–512. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2662
8.Nelson, K. M., Dahlin, J. L., Bisson, J., Graham, J., Pauli, G. F., & Walters, M. A. (2017). The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 60(5), 1620–1637. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975
9.Polasa, K., Raghuram, T., Krishna, T., & Krishnaswamy, K. (1992). Effect of turmeric on urinary mutagens in smokers. Mutagenesis, 7(2), 107–109. doi: 10.1093/mutage/7.2.107
10.Prasad, S., Tyagi, A. K., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2014). Recent Developments in Delivery, Bioavailability, Absorption and Metabolism of Curcumin: the Golden Pigment from Golden Spice. Cancer Research and Treatment, 46(1), 2–18. doi: 10.4143/crt.2014.46.1.2
11.Zanjani, T. M., Ameli, H., Labibi, F., Sedaghat, K., & Sabetkasaei, M. (2014). The Attenuation of Pain Behavior and Serum COX-2 Concentration by Curcumin in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain. The Korean Journal of Pain, 27(3), 246. doi: 10.3344/kjp.2014.27.3.246


COENZYME Q10 100 mg
1.Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Johansson, P. (2018). Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly. Plos One, 13(4). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193120
2.Bhagavan, H. N., & Chopra, R. K. (2006). Coenzyme Q10: Absorption, tissue uptake, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Free Radical Research, 40(5), 445–453. doi: 10.1080/10715760600617843
3.Cordero, M. D., Cano-García, F. J., Alcocer-Gómez, E., Miguel, M. D., & Sánchez-Alcázar, J. A. (2012). Oxidative Stress Correlates with Headache Symptoms in Fibromyalgia: Coenzyme Q10 Effect on Clinical Improvement. PLoS ONE, 7(4). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035677
4.Di Pierro F, Rossi A, Consensi A, Giacomelli C, Bazzichi L. Role for a water-soluble form of CoQ10 in female subjects affected by fibromyalgia. A preliminary study. Clin Exp Rhuematol. (2017) Suppl 105(3):20-27
5.Johansson, P., Dahlström, Ö., Dahlström, U., & Alehagen, U. (2015). Improved health-related quality of life, and more days out of hospital with supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined. Results from a double blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 19(9), 870–877. doi: 10.1007/s12603-015-0509-9
6.Rozen, T., Oshinsky, M., Gebeline, C., Bradley, K., Young, W., Shechter, A., & Silberstein, S. (2002). Open Label Trial of Coenzyme Q10 as A Migraine Preventive. Cephalalgia, 22(2), 137–141. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-2982.2002.00335.x
7.Sandor, P. S., Clemente, L. D., Coppola, G., Saenger, U., Fumal, A., Magis, D., … Schoenen, J. (2005). Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 64(4), 713–715. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000151975.03598.ed
1.Camfield, D. A., Stough, C., Farrimond, J., & Scholey, A. B. (2014). Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Reviews, 72(8), 507–522. doi: 10.1111/nure.12120 (2018, October 15). L-Theanine: Scientific review on benefits, anxiet, dosage, side effects.
3.Foxe, J. J., Morie, K. P., Laud, P. J., Rowson, M. J., Bruin, E. A. D., & Kelly, S. P. (2012). Assessing the effects of caffeine and theanine on the maintenance of vigilance during a sustained attention task. Neuropharmacology, 62(7), 2320–2327. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.01.020
1.Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Pandya R, et al. Melatonin for treatment of sleep disorders. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment #108. (Prepared by the Univ of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center, under Contract#290-02-0023.) AHRQ Publ #05-E002-2. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. November2004
2.Ellis CM, Lemmens G, Parkes JD. Melatonin and insomnia. J Sleep Res 1996;5:61-5
3.Gonçalves AL, Martini Ferreira A, Ribeiro RT, Zukerman E, Cipolla-Neto J, Peres MF. Randomised clinical trial comparing melatonin 3 mg, amitriptyline 25 mg and placebo for migraine prevention. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016;87(10):1127-32
4.James SP, Sack DA, Rosenthal NE, Mendelson WB. Melatonin administration in insomnia. Neuropsychopharmacology 1990;3:19-23
5.Ji, S. (2015, July 3). Melatonin Superior To Toxic Drug In Migraine Prevention Study.
6.Lissoni P, Barni S, Mandala M, et al. Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic solic tumor patients with poor clinical status. Eur J Cancer 1999;35:1688-92
7.Lissoni P, Barni S, Meregalli S, et al. Modulation of cancer endocrine therapy by melatonin: a phase II study of tamoxifen plus melatonin in metastatic breast cancer patients progressing under tamoxifen alone. Br J Cancer 1995;71:854-6.
8.Peres MFP, Zukerman E, da Cunha Tanuri F, et al. Melatonin, 3 mg, is effective for migraine prevention. Neurology 2004;63:757
9.Pignone, A. M., Rosso, A. D., Fiori, G., Matucci-Cerinic, M., Becucci, A., Tempestini, A., Livi, R., Generini, S., Gramigna, L., Benvenuti, C., Carossino, A. M., Conforti, M. L., and Perfetto, F. Melatonin is a safe and effective treatment for chronic pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. J Pineal Res 2006;41(2):95-100.
10.Sherpa, S. (2018, August 21). Melatonin Supplement Facts and Effects.
1.Baldassarre, M., Palladino, V., Amoruso, A., Pindinelli, S., Mastromarino, P., Fanelli, M., … Laforgia, N. (2018). Rationale of Probiotic Supplementation during Pregnancy and Neonatal Period. Nutrients, 10(11), 1693. doi: 10.3390/nu10111693
2.Fiocchi, A., Pawankar, R., Cuello-Garcia, C., Ahn, K., Al-Hammadi, S., Agarwal, A., … Schünemann, H. J. (2015). World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Probiotics. World Allergy Organization Journal, 8, 4. doi: 10.1186/s40413-015-0055-2
3.Probiotic Advisor. Dosage.
4.Tompkins, T., Mainville, I., & Arcand, Y. (2011). The impact of meals on a probiotic during transit through a model of the human upper gastrointestinal tract. Beneficial Microbes, 2(4), 295–303. doi: 10.3920/bm2011.0022
1.Enzyme Essentials. (n.d.). Enzyme Labels.
2.NOW. (2019, March 15). More About Digestive Enzymes.
3.Renew Life. (n.d.). DigestMORE HCl - Enzymes.